Giuseppe Garibaldi Italian pronunciation: [dʒuˈzɛppe ɡariˈbaldi] (Joseph Marie Garibaldi at birth, 4 July 1807, Nice, French Empire – 2 June 1882, Caprera, Kingdom of Italy) was an Italian general, politician and patriot. He is considered, with Camillo Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II and Giuseppe Mazzini, as one of Italy’s as one of Italy’s “fathers of the fatherland”.
Garibaldi was a central figure in the Italian Risorgimento, since he personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the formation of a unified Italy. He generally tried to act on behalf of a legitimate power, which does not make him exactly a revolutionary: for example, he was appointed general by the provisional government of Milan in 1848, General of the Roman Republic in 1849 by the Minister of War, and led the Expedition of the Thousand on behalf and with the consent of Victor Emmanuel II.
He has been called the “Hero of Two Worlds” because of his military enterprises which he conducted in both South America and Europe. These earned him a considerable reputation both in Italy and abroad. This is also due to the exceptional international media coverage that he received at the time. Many of the greatest intellectuals of his time, such as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, and George Sand, showered him with their admiration. The United Kingdom and the United States helped him a great deal, offering him financial and military support in difficult circumstances.